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Propensity to Evil

By Veronica Emilia Nuzzolo,  M.Ed., Ph.D.

good versus evilThe sixteenth century Puritan belief of original sin, the ideology that children are born evil and need to be civilized through harsh punishment and authoritative parental control,,

“Tabula Rasa” “blank slates,” Philosopher John Locke’s opposition to authoritarianism, the concept that human characteristics are attained through learning,,

Jean Jacques Rousseau, innate goodness, the rejection of Puritan belief, the rejection of Locke’s theories, the concept of inherent goodness. 

Innate goodness, the existence of evil, neither can be denied,, biblical concepts provide explanation for the existence of good and evil, but what secular concept can explain the existence of good and evil personalities.

Freudian theory, the unconscious, sex and aggression, attempts to explain but is not a predictor of behavior. Freud believed that all people are innately bad, the unconscious mind governs behavior and ones behavior is determined by the id, the ego, and the superego. The id (the pleasure principle), is dominant when we are born and the suppression by society of the animalistic instinct causes frustration and creates the  destructive, cruel, and selfish personality.

Refuting psychoanalytical theory, behavioral theorists suggest that innately good or bad is a learned characteristic. People are described in terms of the basic way they behave, behaviorists such as Watson and Skinner theorize that the first learned experiences in life are those that will shape the individual regardless of the unconscious mind or biological components. Behavioral theorists concur with the blank slate theory of development, and believe that one can be taught, molded, learn whatever one is introduced to, indicating that being innately good or bad is an outcome, a learned behavior.

The humanistic perspective, the “Third Force” unwilling to embrace Freudian or Behavioral theory, reject the theories of determinism, the unconscious instinctive forces, behaviorism, good behavior must be learned,  and believe in the innate goodness of humanity. In response to previous theories, humanistic theorists such as Rogers and Maslow contend that people are capable of and can increase self-understanding, good or bad, through the individual perception and interpretation of experience.The major premise of the Third Force is that people are basically good, people have an innate need to better themselves and the world, the premise of individual self-worth, the ability to overcome the negative aspects of life, and self-actualization.

Good versus Evil

Do we have a propensity to evil, are we born evil, or are we born inherently good?   Are personal beliefs of good versus evil just myths, or are we simply products of Darwinian theory and billions of years of evolution.

Humanistic theories reject the Christian belief that people are born evil.  Maslow stated “as far as I know we just don’t have any intrinsic instincts for evil.” (i) Carl Rogers stated, “For myself, though I am very well aware of the incredible amount of destructive, cruel, malevolent behavior in today’s world, from the threats of war to the senseless violence in the streets, I do not find that this evil is inherent in human nature (1982) (ii).”

The humanistic perspective continues to focus on the belief that development and innate good consist of elements comprised from the environment, the relationship between nature and nurture. Rogers (1982) “I see members of the human species, like members of other species, as essentially constructive in their fundamental nature, but damaged by their experience.” (i) This external factor, the environment, the world outside of the individual and all it entails.  This experience, this belief that social influence is a major contributing factor in development, the component that allows choice. The “Belief of Perfectibility of the Race” as Godwin suggested, that there are no innate principles, and therefore no original propensity to evil, he considered that “our virtues and our vices may be traced to the incidents which make the history of our lives, and if these incidents could be divested of every improper tendency, vice would be extirpated from the world.” (iii).

The theory of  choice the ability to possess free will.

And in the end… developmentalists will reject all religious, secular, and philosophic views of development, including the theory of free will.

Beginning with Baldwin the study of development is now pursued through new scientific methods. Baldwin suggested that traits are determinants of personality limiting one’s ability to have free will. This theory of determinism suggests that a person’s behavior is biological and that one genetically inherits traits, and that these biological traits will determine specific characteristic responses, personality.

Biological and trait theorists support the scientific process and contend that biology, genetics, hereditary traits, determine an individual’s development. From this perspective growth and development and your personality is genetically hard wired and determined for you. Biological and trait theorists continue to defend that innate good is a biological, inherent trait. Innate Good, predetermined, a biological trait that one may or may not possess.

Is this an affirmation that a propensity to evil exists within human nature?

References:
(i) Welch, D., Tate, G.A., & Richards F. (1978). Humanistic Psychology (Buffalo, NY: Prometheus Books, 1978), 11.
(ii) Rogers, C., (1982) “Notes on Rollo May,” Journal of Humanistic Psychology (Summer 1982): 8.
(iii) Godwin, W., (1793). Enquiry concerning political justice and its influence on modern morals and manners. London.

How to cite this article:
Nuzzolo, V. E. (2016).  Propensity to Evil.  Retrieved from, https://risetoshinetoday.org/2016/03/01/tabula-rasa/

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35 Comments

  1. I believe that we are born with instincts. So technically, I agree with with the philosopher John Locke’s idea of the “Tabula Rasa”, but only with the evil aspect. I also believe in Darwinism and his idea of survival of the fittest. I believe that we often can come out as selfish, and “evil” because our ancestors had to act this way in order for them to survive. For example, they might have been selfish or “evil” in order to protect their food from being stolen by others. In fact, we are animals.

    I believe that evil is taught. One of my teacher’s actually told me something in class that really made me think when I was reading this blog. Racism is taught. If you had two little kids and let you them play with each other, they will play with each other no matter what race each other is. Until someone comes along and tells them that this is wrong. Basically, evil is caused by environmental causes and external forces. Like Carl Rogers said, “I do not find that this evil is inherent in human nature”. We learn how to hate and we learn how to do evil.

    I don’t believe that evil is genetically inherited. Many personality traits can be inherited, but not evil. I feel like evil is just an idea and evil can mean many different things to different people. So for example, if a father his “evil”, his son or daughter does not necessarily have to come out “evil”. It’s learned.

    Liked by 1 person

    • Herol Z says:

      I agreed with what both you and Darren had to say. You stated that evil can mean different things to different people which got me to think, could’t the children of these sixteen century Puritan’s think that their parents are evil? I mean at least once Puritan parents would have to come across a child who is unwilling to conform because the punishments had the adverse affects on them, and in turn the parents would continue to believe that child is born evil because they are unwilling to conform.

      Liked by 1 person

      • Hey Lisandra, I like how you brought up survival of the fittest and our ancestors. It’s interesting to think about “good” and “evil” when humans were in survival mode. While there’s not much history on their thought patterns, thinking about evil in terms of survival reminded me of Genie, the girl that was isolated from 20 months old to 13 years old. Apparently, her dad had her locked to a chair and left her in a bedroom. Every time she made a noise, he would beat her. I would think she would be in survival mode, and would do something “evil” to him at least, but I don’t think she did. Of course, she was and is (if still alive) deprived of developing normally due to the extreme isolation, but even when she was found I believe she didn’t repeat the actions done to her in her past environment. This further proves to me that you aren’t born evil, and a horrible environment doesn’t mean you will commit “evil” acts either.

        Liked by 1 person

    • I completely agree. I believe that evil is taught just as racism is taught because those we are racist don’t necessarily have kids who are racists unless they are influenced and manipulated into thinking its okay. Just like in bloodline the little boy was taught that killing the girl’s family for her to become his wife was okay but others may see it as evil. He wasn’t born to think that it was evil though, he thought it was completely normal. His mom who’s parents were killed by his father knew deep down that it wasn’t right but because she was influenced to believe otherwise she started to. It all depends how you interpret evil based on your experience because what you find evil many may not.

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  2. @Lisandra

    I absolutely agree with you that “evil” or, bad behavior is learned. It’s hard for me to wrap my head around the idea that some people are simply born “evil,” destined to be a plague on their families and the rest of the world with no end in sight. For example, I graduated from Danvers High School, the same school where 14 year-old Philip Chism murdered his teacher, which has been all over the news. I hear the term “born bad” tossed around from people in Danvers, and even the more religious folks convinced he’s possessed by “demons.” A horrific tragedy, to be sure. But what really was going on with the kid? Or anyone else that becomes a serial killer or murderous dictator? I’m sure many psychologists have had a field day trying to study this, but the notion that this or that person was simply “evil” at birth seems like a cop-out to me. Mental illness in conjunction with outside factors in a person’s upbringing can cause people to become destructive, diabolical people. Maybe some folks like to believe in the original sin or “born bad” theology because it’s easier and less painful than to contemplate what really might have caused an unsavory character to do what they did. The same goes for racism. No one comes out of their mother’s womb hating other races, but as they grow up it’s most definitely a learned mentality, usually one where a child has little room to think for his/herself about how they REALLY feel. Like the song from the classic (and one of my favorite!) Broadway shows, “South Pacific” goes:

    “You’ve got to be taught, before you are six, or seven, or eight,
    To hate all the people your relatives hate,
    You’ve got to be carefully taught!”

    Liked by 1 person

    • SteveMc says:

      @Darren

      Finally we disagree. I am truly excited by this because I respect your thoughts and have enjoyed your intelligent contributions thus far. I agree that “most” of the behaviorsimilarity that are labeled as “evil” are learned. However, and that is a BIG however where do you suppose those outliers in history come from? By outliers I mean of course the individuals who fall drastically outside of the normal statistical data. I can personally attest to the reality of bad sprouting from good and there is plenty of anecdotal information to support good sprouting from bad.

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      • @ Steve,

        But wouldn’t people who do evil, corrupt, and damaging things be classified as having some sort of mental disorder? In my opinion, and I believe most others outside of some sort of religious context, anyone from Hitler to the guys who sets people’s garbage on fire clearly have something wrong with them. Does that excuse their behavior? Absolutely not. Should they pay the consequences? Hell, yes! But I believe that anyone who is a threat to anyone else or society in general had unaddressed mental health issues on various levels. The term “evil,” can of course, be very subjective. But to pronounce someone born inherently evil, with no other options or regardless of upbringing or influence seems a bit of a stretch to me.

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      • SteveMc says:

        @Darren

        I suppose it only makes sense to establish the context in which we are discussing “evil”. If we don’t then we could possibly miss the value of each other’s thoughts. For example “outside of some sort of religious context” seems to be a limitation. As I understand it the word evil is defined as “profoundly immoral and malevolent”. Under that definition we have to think are people born automatically moral? Do we spend more time teaching babies and children what NOT to do or what to do? I know all 3 of my children learned the meaning of “No” long before “yes”. So is immoral/moral (evil/good) behavior taught, absolutely. However, what is the default setting? My thought is we are born naturally immoral almost animalistic. We are exposed to environment that quickly establishes “norms” for us. Is the child cannibal evil? For purpose of argument is the adult cannibal (that has never been exposed to anything different) evil? My thoughts are heavily weighted with religion. I understand that may narrow my view. That is why I enjoy outside perspectives such as yours.

        I do not think that anyone is born evil to such an extent that they are beyond recourse. After rereading your comment I think that is possibly what you thought I meant. I propose that everyone is born equally evil and that we must be taught to be good. I hope that clears up my position somewhat.

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  3. Michelle DiPhillipo says:

    To me, evil is something that humans learn, not something that they are born with. I feel like evil is a broad term for different people, but to me means causing harm to someone else or committing immoral acts.
    When a child is told to do something from their parents, they do it. Kids see their parents as right always and look up to them. If a parent taught their child good morals at a young age, then most likely they will grow up with that mentality. There are some other cases where kids have great parents who taught them everything they need to know about being good people, but they learned their bad behavior from their friends or other people sometimes at school.
    I believe that all human characteristics are learned by their environment and by their parents most importantly.

    Theorists Watson and Skinner in my opinion have the right idea by saying that all behavior good or bad, is learned and that everyone has a clean slate when they are first born. I do not think that anyone is born evil.

    I also believe that Maslow and Rogers have the right idea about saying that we are not born evil. No person is born with a drive to do evil things. People are aware of what evil things are and that we are all brought up by our experiences and we learn from them and are able to make ourselves better people by it.

    Liked by 1 person

    • Michelle,
      I really like how you said that we are all brought up by our experiences and we learn from them and are able to make ourselves better people by it.
      Last week in class, Professor Nuzzolo told us that babies are born with no instincts at all and that we don’t know how to do anything, but cry. This lead to my conclusion that we are not born evil and that John Locke might possibly be correct about his clean of a “tabula rasa”.
      I do agree that evil actions and thoughts are results of environmental factors and our drive to succeed.

      Like

      • Michelle DiPhillipo says:

        Lissandra,

        Its funny to me because I sometime hear people say “he/she was born evil” when referring to anyone who they found out just murdered someone or something awful like that. But as you and Professor Nuzzolo said, Babies are born with no instinct at all except knowing how to cry. I honestly feel like it would be funny to think that a baby is evil when they do not know how to even walk or talk. The baby has to grow up some more and experience actual life and deal with family at home or society to commit evil acts.

        Like

    • I agree with you because since we tend to learn our morals at a young age from our parents we obey by what they believe is right or wrong. Until later if we somehow disagree depending on what it may be then we decide otherwise. Behavior is associated with learning because they depend on each other good or bad. Kids may follow their friends or what’s on tv, the environment has a great impact on what exactly is good or bad. Evil isn’t inherited because it’s not even a gene or a trait, it’s the way you interpret things based on what you believe or was firced to believe. It’s not something you can’t change because someone who was born good can turn evil if they experience something deep enough to bring it out.

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      • Heather Monks says:

        I very much agree with you. There is no gene that is passed down with heredity that will make a child bad. That isn’t a trait they can develop, and I think a behavior from a child is a learned action from those around them. At a very young age they are so impressionable to all behaviors, and there have been numerous experiments on this, that a child with bad behavior may have just learned it from watching.
        Now to say that serial killers learned to kill from watchers others would be a stretch. There is definitely something inside of their heads that is switched on. Are they born evil? Or is it such an outlier of mental illness that it can’t be seen within this case.
        I also think your opinion on this depends on what morals you have and how you were raised, they is no clear cut right or wrong answer.

        Like

  4. Herol Z says:

    I am siding with rogers, i don’t think we are born either evil or good, but rather the environment that we are brought up in dictates the out come of who we become.

    My reasoning can be tied back to the experiment with the bobo doll. In the experiment children were brought in to observe how adults acted with the bobo doll. On the first try the first group of children observed the adults being violent with the doll and when the children were allowed to be in the room with the doll, they acted in a very violent manner towards the bobo doll as well. Now for the second try the second group of children observed the adults being loving towards the bobo doll, and once they were let in to play with the doll they treated the doll with loving care as well.

    On both occasions what affected the nature of the children’s reactions and how they were going to treat the doll, was based on how they had previously observed the adults before them treating the doll. So with that being said if you surround a new born with either a good or bad environment, then that new born will grown into reflecting the environment they were born in.

    As far as the sixteenth century Puritan belief of original sin, the ideology that children are born evil and need to be civilized through harsh punishment and authoritative parental control, i think that the harsh punishment can sometimes have adverse affects, and leave the child rebellious against their environment.

    Liked by 1 person

  5. In my opinion,”evil,” which could be defined in a broad number of ways to different individuals, is not something we inherit. A child who is raised to think they are evil, for religious reasons, may or may not proceed to perform unjust and malicious acts in life. Even raised in the worst circumstances, evil is more likely to be temporary instilled, and re-evaluated later in life. For humans, our environment is one of main reasons for who we become.

    Biologically, someone may have some chemical or hormonal imbalance. However, someone around them most likely would notice odd behaviors and get them checked. There are probably cases where there was nobody who cared or accepted that this said child may need to get help. Nonetheless, as humans, we do have free will- and at a certain age “evil” actions are learned from media, society, peers, poor upbringing, etc., which brings this back to….environment. Was the child born “evil?” No. Did the child notice negative behaviors from someone else or commit a negative act and not get the “right” reaction/ repercussion after? Most likely.

    Liked by 1 person

  6. Ronald Desumas says:

    No body was born evil. Everybody depends of the society which they live in (entourage). Living with good people, you happen to do the right things; living with bad people, their influence will make you do wrong things. Sometimes for some reason, in order to fit in, you go with their ideas.

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  7. I believe that evil is learned just as evil actions are learned by enviromental factors. If you’re raised in an enviroment where you are taught that killing is good if it benefits you , innocent or not such as the bloodline episode then you see nothing bad of it. Even back then people were taught to be racist and eventually many of them became racist but not all. Some people are born with the instincts and are able to overcome their environmental factors. It all depends on how you define evil because some may agree that killing is evil no matter what but then others might say no unless you kill someone who was killing and torturing others. However, there are some people who grew up in a normal childhood, but still commit evil acts. Others think it’s based on the upbringing but then how come someone who is raised the exact same way as their sibling can commit evil acts while others don’t. Outside of the household has a major impact as well which proves it’s not genetics.

    Like

    • LuzAnne,
      I totally agree with you. I also believe that evil has a lot to do with environmental factors. Often, people who are “evil” have experienced something majorly traumatic in their childhoods. If not, then they have some type of mental disorder or extreme jealousy and anger that brings one to kill someone else. No one really kills people for “fun”, unless they have a major mental disorder. Usually murder is out of anger and simply a cold hearted person. So I agree with you in the fact that what determines ones “evilness” is all based in the environment where they grew up in.

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  8. Marie Bernier says:

    Rousseau’s ideology seems too idealistic in the sense that although it is plausible to believe inherit goodness, it can be quickly denied as it is seen that goodness is not a permanent stance. I believe children could be taught evil through environmental factors due to the human tendency to be greedy. Children are all at first innocent, being evil is learned. Sometimes children don’t know what they are doing is bad, it’s either that they saw someone do or they heard someone say it, “monkey see, monkey do”.
    I also believe that we have instincts that make us seem selfish. For example I was watching a video and it was about if babies are bad or good, to show if they were either good or bad they had 2 piles of food on the table, one had more than the other, they asked each baby which pile do they want and most of them chose the one with the most food. I don’t believe that means the baby is bad or selfish, I think it means the baby is hungry.

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  9. SteveMc says:

    I respect the life work of Maslow and Rogers, however…. How can one make a scientific statement to how humanity is created? Perhaps I’ve already lost you. Christians believe that we are born inherently evil because it supports the precepts of the faith. Maslow and Rogers believe evil is taught because it supports the precepts of their teachings.

    Let’s be objective and ask a simple question. If evil can only be taught then where did it originate? That begs the question, what is “evil”? Is it evil to be selfish? If not then, give me your money I want it. If it is then, that sort of disproves the standing theory doesn’t it?

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  10. I believe the “we are all born evil” claim would make more sense if it were tweaked. I think that evil in this sense is being misconstrued with self interest. The evil being certain actions that revolve around self interest that may harm/inconvenience others.

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    • Heather Monks says:

      I understand where you’re coming from but I find it hard to believe that we are born with the mindset of our own self-interest and hurt anyone in my path. Yes Maslow’s hierarchy of needs would say that our innate needs, we can be selfish about until its been obtained, but a baby crying cause it’s hungry doesn’t know it’s evil; it’s not in their mindset.
      But when that baby grows up, and they develop morals, I think that’s when they learn what evil and good are. Once they have morals and understand it, when they consciously go against those morals, then they’re “bad.” But they know that. I don’t think you can pin a child as being bad, if they don’t know they are. Unless they lack self-awareness and may have a mental problem, most children know what they’re doing is not good, and they’re up to no good. But the entire scenario is up to personal interpretation.

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  11. Mamadou Balde says:

    I do not believe the concept that human beings are born evil although Christianity teaches it. I truly believe that humans are born as blank slates and that evil is learned by being in contact with someone or something that is evil. Or the environment teaches us how to be evil. When a baby is born, it is like a blank paper. Anything the baby comes across with, it absorbs it and it sticks and becomes a characteristics of the baby. That’s why we always have to put babies in environment where they are not going to learn bad behavior, to teach them the correct/right way to do things in order for them to be good people. I’m not saying if we teach them good values at an early age that they are not going to be evil people, but they become more likely to be good than evil.

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  12. Gabby Berube says:

    I believe we are all born the same. I believe the only instincts we have are sexual ones. We are all born with capabilities of being evil, committing crimes, and violent acts upon others or one self. We are also born with kind and loving capabilities the same as Ghandi and Mother Theresa. However, Gandhi and Mother Teresa were not born with the natural instinct to change and impact the world. They too, were also born blank, like every one else. They learned how to act in the world, and how to deal with evil instead of learn from it, and how to be themselves instead of caring what other thinks.

    Evil comes from the ideas of others. No one knew how to make a bomb out of nothing until it was on the news, or how to hijack a plane until someone else figured out how to do it. Behaviors are learned. As soon as the news and media stops explaining how others commit their crimes, and instead the media shares how others promote good and kindness, I truly believe there will be less evil.

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  13. YU LIU says:

    I think when we was born, didn’t have any Good versus Evil, all the behavior were studying in the future, because of family, friends effect, in childhood, family are so important to effect kid’s behavior, more support will make kid more arrogant, more strict will make kids more introversion.so I think we can find a average point and make kids do anything by himself, but we still have more support to him, make him know to be a good person and how to know to be a good person.

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  14. Ezekial Francisco says:

    This specific idea of good vs. evil and child development has been one of my favorite psychological topics. In truth, I believe humans are inherently bad but are taught “good”. This is more of a belief but when I use the same logic I find that children can be inherently good but taught “bad”. It’s a discussion I have had with friends many times over and naturally, can never find an answer. So I find myself always accepting the behaviorist idea that everyone is a blank slate, and whatever learned behavior they have determines if they are “good” or “bad. It’s very interesting topic.

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    • Cindy R. says:

      I agree this is an interesting topic to discuss about, though I don’t really agree with people being born “evil”and then taught to conform into good or that people are born “good”, though there maybe people more comfortable with that idea. We can be taught what is considered “bad” and “good” from almost any age, even though it does get harder to change our mindsets as we get older. My belief is that we are all born with needs even before we know what those needs are and why we need them. We are shown the positives and negatives of them from people before us, how there are ways that we act on those needs which it can satisfy or destroy us, others or both. I don’t know if there is anyone else that has thought this before.

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  15. Mingxi Li says:

    I believe human beings are not born evil, As psychological perspective, all bad behaviors are learned, not born with. we are all go through the process of growing up from a baby, neither of us having bad behavior in the first place, it all depends on what environment we in, what we saw, absorb and leaned. On the other hand, if we are all born evil, then why we should get educated since we were born, that does make any sense. However, we have been educated since we were born doesn’t mean we won’t have or learn bad behavior, we might have bad behavior. But when we was born there is no good or bad, we don’t know and haven’t learn anything.

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  16. seeker1307 says:

    we are all born into this world with the same emotions, affection, and probably personalities. But it all depends on how you was able to unlock these things. you background, experience, culture, tradition, values all have a role to play in this.

    Being evil was something we all was born with and it only a matter of time for each and every one of us to open it at one point in our lives. NEing evil is not about learned or bad behavior. You can grow up to be evil or good all depends on you and what you’ve experienced or being taught.

    don’t want to get in too deep

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  17. Jane says:

    Jane Idreda

    First, evil is the fact of suffering, misfortune, and wrongdoing or cosmic evil force. Evil can also be something that brings sorrow, distress, or calamity…..

    I do not believe how one can say that evil is inherent-ed, you can not inherent evil instead you learn how to do evil.
    Carl Rogers said, “I do not find that this evil is inherent in human nature”. For example, if a father was a rapist and he happens to have a son does this mean that this boy is automatically going to become a rapist? This boy will become evil only after he is learned what the father is doing and if he has not gotten a chance to be corrected.

    I don’t believe that evil is genetically inherited. Many personality traits can be inherited, but not evil. Evil can mean so many different things to different people.What i may call evil might not be evil to someone else.

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  18. Alex huezo says:

    Good vs Evil and human nature is one the topics I find most interesting. Why people act the way they act is definitely different depending on who you ask. Personally I think most people are born with a blank slate and through learning they become good or evil. But even then it’s a very gray area, as to where the line is drawn. can someone be just good, can they be good while committing something evil?

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  19. Jessica Strungis says:

    I beilive that in reguards to evil, we will never have a definative answer. There are so many donominators. I must say though, that when people talk demon possesed; I do do beilive that to be true in cases were innocent people are murdered etc. Such as the Chislom case at Danvers High School. I cant fathom any other way a human being could do such a thing to another human being. In short, I dont beilive any theorist or PH.D or anyone else will ever be able to explain evil definitely or scientifically.

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