Early life and work: Bandura was the youngest of six children born to parents of eastern European descent. His father was from Kraków, Pol., and his mother from Ukraine; both immigrated to Canada as adolescents. After marrying they settled in Mundare, Alta., where Bandura’s father worked laying track for the trans-Canada railroad.
After graduating from high school in 1946, Bandura pursued a bachelor’s degree at the University of British Columbia and in 1949 graduated with the Bolocan Award in psychology, annually awarded to the outstanding student in psychology. He then did graduate work at the University of Iowa, where he received a master’s degree in psychology (1951) and a doctorate in clinical psychology (1952).
In 1953 Bandura accepted a one-year instructorship at Stanford University, where he quickly secured a professorship. In 1974 he was named the David Starr Jordan Professor of Social Science in Psychology, and two years later he became chairman of the psychology department. He remained at Stanford for the rest of his career.
In 1961 Bandura carried out his famous Bobo doll experiment, a study in which researchers physically and verbally abused a clown-faced inflatable toy in front of preschool-age children, which led the children to later mimic the behaviour of the adults by attacking the doll in the same fashion. Subsequent experiments in which children were exposed to such violence on videotape yielded similar results.
Testimony on the effects of televised violence
In the late 1960s, prompted by the media’s graphic coverage of the assassination of U.S. Sen. Robert F. Kennedy together with increased reports of children incurring serious injuries during attempted replications of dangerous behaviors depicted in television advertisements, the potential effects of television violence on children became a growing public concern. Owing to his related research, Bandura was invited to testify before the Federal Trade Commission (FTC), the Eisenhower Commission, and several congressional committees as to the evidence that televised violence affects aggressive behaviour. His testimony played a role in the FTC’s decision to render as unacceptable portrayals of children engaging in risky activities—such as pounding one another in the head with mallets in an advertisement for headache medication—and subsequently to pass new advertising standards.
Later life and work
Bandura was the first to demonstrate (1977) that self-efficacy, or the belief in one’s own capabilities, has an effect on what an individual chooses to do, the amount of effort he puts into doing it, and the way he feels as he is doing it. Bandura also discovered that learning occurs both through those beliefs and through social modeling—thereby originating social cognitive theory (1986), which holds that an individual’s environment, cognition, and behavior all interact to determine how he functions, as opposed to one of those factors playing a dominant role.
For a complete biography, visit: http://stanford.edu/dept/psychology/bandura/bandura-bio-pajares/Albert%20_Bandura%20_Biographical_Sketch.html