Death and Dying:
- Death is the final stage of growth
- Experienced by everyone and no one escapes
- Young people tend to ignore death
- Elderly begin to think about death
- Disease that cannot be cured and will result in death
- People react in different ways
- Some believe death as a final peace
Stages of Death and Dying:
- Anger, can no longer deny death
- Bargaining – accepts death but wants more time
- Depression, realizes death will be soon
- Acceptance, understands and accepts death
- Dignity and Respect in Death
- Death is a part of life
Elisabeth Kubler-Ross (1969) brought the subject of death into the open with her observation that those facing impending death tend to move through five broad stages:
- Denial: The initial stage: “It can’t be happening.”
- Anger: “Why ME? It’s not fair!” (either referring to God, oneself, or anybody perceived, rightly or wrongly, as “responsible”)
- Bargaining: “Just let me live to see my child(ren) graduate.”
- Depression: “I’m so sad, why bother with anything?”
- Acceptance: “It’s going to be OK.”
Theories of Aging
There is no single way to age successfully.
- Cellular Clock Theory: All humans have cells, the “clock” is the number of regenerations and divisions cells can undergo before cell growth slows and eventually stops.
- Wear and Tear Theory: Effects of aging are caused by damage done to cells and body systems over time essentially being “worn out” due to use. Once they wear out, they can no longer function correctly.
- Free-radical Theory: Organisms age because cells accumulate free radical damage with the passage of time.
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Ryckman, R. M. (2013). Theories of personality (10th ed.). Mason, OH: Cengage Learning.
Science Clarified, Real Life Biology, Vol. 3 – Earth Science, Vol. 1/Instinct and Learning