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Drug Classifications

SUBSTANCE ABUSE – TOLERANCE AND WITHDRAWALdrug-trafficking-causes-consequences-7-638

Drug:  Any substance that alters consciousness

  • Psychoactive Drugs
    Induce an altered state of consciousness.

Affects a person’s:

  • Emotions
  • Perceptions
  • Behaviors
  • Addictive Drugs
    Produce dependence
  • Biological
  • Psychological

Withdrawal leads to a craving for the drug that, in some cases may  be nearly irresistible.

Stimulants:
Cocaine, Amphetamines

stimulants

Stimulants: Cocaine, Amphetamines – Increase neural firing and arouse the nervous system.

Effects

  • Increased confidence
  • Mood elevation
  • Sense of energy and alertness
  • Decreased appetite
  • Anxiety
  • Irritability
  • Insomnia
  • Transient drowsiness
  •  Delayed orgasm.

 

Depressants:
Alcohol, Barbiturates

depressants

Depressants: Alcohol, Barbiturates – Decrease nervous system activity.

Effects

  • Reduces anxiety
  • Impulsiveness
  • Dramatic mood swings
  • Bizarre thoughts
  • Suicidal behavior
  • Slurred speech
  • Disorientation
  • Slowed mental and physical functioning
  • Limited attention span

 

Hallucinogens:
Cannabis, LSD

hallucinogens

 

Hallucinogens: Cannabis, LSD

Effects

  • Euphoria
  • Relaxed inhibitions
  • Increased appetite
  • Disorientated behavior

Withdrawal Symptoms

  • Hyperactivitysynthetic-cannabinoids-12-728
  • Insomnia
  • Decreased appetite
  • Anxiety
  • Depression
  • Sleeplessness

Adverse/Overdose Reactions – (Cannabis)

  • Panic
  • Paranoia
  • Fatigue
  • Bizarre and dangerous behavior
  • Decreased testosterone over
    long-term
  • Immune system effects

Adverse/Overdose Reactions – (LSD)

  • Nausea and chills
  • Increased pulse, temperature and blood pressure
  • Slow, deep breathing
  • Loss of appetite
  • Insomnia
  • Bizarre, dangerous behavior

Narcotics: Heroin, Morphineheroin

 

Effects

  • Anxiety
  • Pain reduction
  • Apathy
  • Euphoria
  • Difficulty concentrating
  • Slowed speech
  • Decreased physical activity
  • Drooling
  • Itching
  • Nausea

 

 

Withdrawal Symptoms                                                       

  • Anxiety and/or panic
  • Vomiting
  • Sneezing
  • Diarrhea
  • Lower back pain and/or muscle cramping
  • Watery eyes, runny nose
  • Yawning
  • Irritability
  • Tremors, chills sweating

Adverse/Overdose Reactions      

  • Depressed levels of consciousness
  • Low blood pressure
  • Rapid heart rate
  • Shallow breathing
  •  Convulsions
  • Coma and possible death

 

References:
Bernstein, D.A. & Nash, P.W. (2008). Essentials of psychology (4th ed.) Boston: Houghton Mifflin Company.
Feldman, R. (2013). Essentials of understanding psychology (11th ed.). New York, NY: McGraw-Hill.
Friedman, H.S. & Schustack, M.W. (2012), Personality: classic theories and modern research (5th ed). Boston: Pearson Allyn & Bacon.
McGraw-Hill.McGraw Hill Higher Education (2013), The McGraw Hill Companies, Inc.
Ryckman, R. M. (2013). Theories of personality (10th ed.). Mason, OH: Cengage Learning.

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