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Human Growth and Development

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Defining Developmentgrowth

The science of human development…Seeks to understand how and why people — all kinds of people, everywhere, of every age — change over time.

Life Stages:

  • Begins at birth and ends at death
  • During the entire lifespan, individuals have needs that must be met
  • Infancy: Birth to 1 year
  • Early Childhood: 1 – 6 years
  • Late Childhood: 6 – 12 years
  • Adolescence: 12 – 20 years
  • Early Adulthood: 20 – 40 years
  • Middle Adulthood: 40 – 65 years
  • Late Adulthood: 65 years and up

Growth and Development Types:

  • Physical: Body Growth
  • Mental: Mind Development
  • Emotional: Feelingsgrowth
  • Social: Interactions and relationships

All four growth types occur in each stage of development

All Stages of Development

  • Physical Development
  • Mental Development
  • Emotional Development
  • Social Development
  • Needs
  • (During Infancy, dramatic and rapid changes, infants are dependent for all needs)

The Life-Span Perspective:

Development is multidirectional

  • Over time, human characteristics change in every direction
  • Several major theorists describe stages of development: Freud, Erickson, Piaget
  • Others view development as a continuous process

Socioeconomic Context – Socioeconomic Status (SES)

A person’s position in society as determined by income, wealth, occupation, education, and place of residence.

Development Is MulticulturalPicture1

  • Culture – patterns of behavior that are passed from one generation to the next.
  • Vygotsky described the interaction between culture and education.
  • Ethnic group – People whose ancestors were born in the same region and who often share a language, culture, and religion

Development Is Multidisciplinary

  • Genetics and neuroscience are two of the newer disciplines in lifespan research.
  • Every trait—psychological as well as physical—is influenced by genes.

Theories of Human Development:

A developmental theory is a systematic statement of principles and generalizations that provides a framework for understanding how and why people change as they grow older.

Psychoanalytic Theory

  • A theory of human development that holds that irrational, unconscious drives and motives, often originating in childhood, underlie human behavior.
  • Psychoanalytic theory originated with Sigmund Freud (1856– 1939)

Erickson’s Stages

  • Erik Erikson (1902–1994)
  • Described eight developmental stages, each characterized by a challenging developmental crisis.
  • His first five stages build on Freud’s theory; but, he also described three adult stages.

develop

Behaviorism

  • A theory of human development that studies observable behavior. Behaviorism is also called learning theory, because it describes the laws and processes by which behavior is learned.
  • ConditioningAccording to behaviorism, the processes by which responses become linked to particular stimuli and learning takes place.

Classical Conditioning – Ivan Pavlov (1849-1936)

  • (also called respondent conditioning), a process in which a person or animal learns to associate a neutral stimulus with a meaningful stimulus, gradually reacting to the neutral stimulus with the same response as to the meaningful one.

Operant Conditioning – B.F. Skinner (1904–1990)

  • (also called instrumental conditioning) a learning process in which a particular action is followed either by something desired (which makes the person or animal more likely to repeat the action) or by something unwanted (which makes the action less likely to be repeated).

psycho devel.jpg

Social Learning Theory – Albert Bandura 

  • An extension of behaviorism that emphasizes the influence that other people have over a person’s behavior.
  • Modeling– people learn by observing other people and then copying them.
  • Self-efficacy– (how effective people think they are when it comes to changing themselves or altering their social context.

Cognitive Theory

  • Thoughts and expectations profoundly affect action.
  • Focuses on changes in how people think over time.
  • Jean Piaget (1896–1980)

piaget

Death and Dying:

  • Death is the final stage of growth
  • Experienced by everyone and no one escapes
  • Young people tend to ignore death
  • Elderly begin to think about death

Terminal Illness

  • Disease that cannot be cured and will result in death
  • People react in different ways
  • Some believe death as a final peace

Stages of Death and Dying:

  • Anger, can no longer deny death
  • Bargaining – accepts death but wants more time
  • Depression, realizes death will be soon
  • Acceptance, understands and accepts death
  • Dignity and Respect in Death
  • Death is a part of life

References:

Bernstein, D.A. & Nash, P.W. (2008). Essentials of psychology (4th ed.) Boston: Houghton Mifflin Company.

Feldman, R. (2013). Essentials of understanding psychology (11th ed.). New York, NY: McGraw-Hill.

Friedman, H.S. & Schustack, M.W. (2012), Personality: classic theories and modern research (5th ed). Boston: Pearson Allyn & Bacon.

McGraw-Hill.McGraw Hill Higher Education (2013), The McGraw Hill Companies, Inc.

Ryckman, R. M. (2013). Theories of personality (10th ed.). Mason, OH: Cengage Learning.


34 Comments

  1. eguerrieo says:

    Read. I need to go over the charts a bit more to get it to sink in.

    Liked by 1 person

  2. lillyanamayo says:

    Read and only understood part of it.

    Like

  3. Kamilla DeFreitas says:

    read and somewhat understood, need more clarification on which theorist goes with which idea and some terms

    Like

  4. JESSICA BRUNS says:

    read and got it!
    thank you

    Liked by 1 person

  5. Debbie Ross says:

    Read this and going over each again

    Like

  6. Lydia Li says:

    Read and had difficulties understanding some parts but was able to connect topics to what we discussed in class

    Like

  7. Harman P Singh says:

    i read the beginning and understood it however towards the middle i began to struggle with the different things such as how development Is multidisciplinary

    Like

  8. anthonymansi001 says:

    Read it and not going to lie completely lost

    Like

  9. Maria Pineda says:

    read and understood a little

    Like

  10. Fernando L Sousa says:

    Read and somewhat understood !

    Like

  11. Carole Saintil says:

    I read and understood tis

    Like

  12. Olivia Filipowich says:

    read and understood most of it

    Liked by 1 person

  13. read and understood a little

    Like

  14. hmouataz says:

    Read and Understood.

    Like

  15. emilka627 says:

    Read and understood

    Like

  16. philgdasilva says:

    read and somewhat understood

    Like

  17. Read and understood for the most part, but admit that there were parts of the reading that I didn’t understand.

    Like

  18. Sky says:

    Read, understood some stages but will need clarification later.

    Liked by 1 person

  19. nakarig03 says:

    Read/ Watched interesting topic.. didn’t understand

    Like

  20. ojune4 says:

    read and definitely like Erikson’s perspective over Freud’s

    Liked by 1 person

  21. Nigus says:

    read and understand most parts

    Like

  22. sanunez27 says:

    Read & I think I understand for the most part

    Like

  23. aymarasoto says:

    Read

    Liked by 2 people

  24. Netra Kumari Bhattarai says:

    read and understood a bit but would like to learn more about it.

    Liked by 2 people

  25. hibaeva says:

    Read, all I understood is life start with birth and end with death but the rest huge blank

    Liked by 2 people

  26. Avery Burkhardt says:

    read and understand a little

    Liked by 2 people

  27. Kumar21 says:

    read and understood a little bit because we learned about these people in class but other wise it was still confusing

    Liked by 2 people

  28. yu012117 says:

    read and understood a bit but interesting topic!

    Liked by 2 people

  29. Christian Santos says:

    Read and tried my best to understand.

    Liked by 1 person

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