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Jung’s Analytical Psychology

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Concepts and Principles

Analytical psychology: a unique brand of psychology that emphasizes the complex interplay between oppositional forces within the psyche and the ways in which these internal conflicts affect personality development

Psyche: construct to represent all of the interacting systems within human personality that are needed to account for the mental life and behavior of the person

  • Libido is a general life process energy (all of the urges that are derived from conflict between forces in the psyche)

Operation of the psyche

  • Principle of opposites: idea that the energy that propels personality and behavior is derived from the interplay between opposite forces within the psyche
  • Principle of equivalence: idea that energy expended in one part of the psyche will be compensated for by an equal amount of energy in the same or different form in another part of the psyche
  • Principle of entropy: idea that energy is automatically redistributed in the psyche in order to achieve equilibrium

Components of the psyche:

  • Ego: force in the personality responsible for feelings of identity and continuity
  • Personal unconscious: region that contains all of the personal experiences that have been blocked from awareness
  • Collective unconscious: depository of instincts and archetypes that go beyond personal experience; these transpersonal experiences are the residue of human evolutionary development

Archetypes: universal themes or symbols that can be activated by forces operating in the psyche

  • Persona: role human beings play in order to meet the demands of others
  • Shadow: inferior, evil, and repulsive side of human nature
  • Anima: feminine archetype in men, including both positive and negative characteristics of the transpersonal female
  • Animus: masculine archetype in woman, including both positive and negative characteristics of the transpersonal male

Self: archetype that leads people to search for ways of maximizing the development of their multifaceted potentials

  • Transcendent function: process by which a conflict is resolved by bringing opposing forces into balance with each other through understanding
  • Mandala: symbolic representation of the self; multifaceted, balanced, and harmonious

The Theory of Psychological Types

Fundamental attitudes

  • Extraversion: characterized by an outgoing and relatively confident approach to life
  • Introversion: characterized by a retiring and reflective approach to life

Four functions:

  • Sensing: initial, concrete experiencing of phenomena without the use of reason
  • Thinking: helps us understand events through the use of reason and logic
  • Feeling: evaluation of events by judging whether they are good or bad, acceptable, or unacceptable
  • Intuiting: relying on hunches when dealing with strange situations that have no established facts

Rational functions: modes of making judgments or evaluations of events in the world. (thinking and feeling)

Irrational functions: modes of apprehending the world without evaluating it. (sensation and intuition)

Theory of psychological types: people classified into eight types on the basis of a combination of attitudes and functions

  • Extraverted thinking type: characterized in a positively by an ability to organize masses of facts into a coherent theory, and in negatively by a selfish and exploitative attitude toward others
  • Introverted thinking type: characterized positively by imagination and an ability to think originally and boldly, and negatively by social ineptness
  • Extraverted feeling type: characterized positively by an acceptance of the standards of society, and negatively by a change in emotions from situation to situation
  • Introverted feeling type: characterized positively by intense feelings of sympathy for others who have experienced misfortune, and negatively by shyness and inaccessibility
  • Extraverted sensing type: characterized positively by an appreciation for the arts, and negatively by crude pleasure seeking
  • Introverted sensing type: characterized positively by the  intensity of subjective sensations, and negatively by oversensitivity and obtuseness
  • Extraverted intuitive type: characterized positively by a quick grasp of the creative possibilities in various ventures, and negatively by impatience and flightiness
  • Introverted intuitive type: characterized positively by the ability to envision the future, and negatively by an inability to communicate effectively with others

Personality Development

  • Self-realization: goal of development is the realization of one’s potentials
  • Neurosis and psychosis

In Jung’s view, neurosis and psychosis differ primarily in the severity of their consequences

Therapeutic Assessment Techniques

  • Dream analysis: means of resolving current problems and pointing to directions for healthy development
  • Method of amplification: technique in which the patient and analyst continue to reassess and reinterpret the same symbols in an attempt to broaden their understanding of them
  • Word association test: patients are presented with stimulus words and asked to give responses to them; greater time latencies in responding are assumed to reflect the existence of underlying complexes
  • Painting therapy: technique used to help patients clarify the various symbols seen in their dreams and increase their understanding of themselves.

Evaluative Comments

  • Comprehensiveness: broad scope
  • Precision and testability: not very precise and very difficult to test adequately
  • Parsimony: too many concepts to explain phenomena in its domain economically
  • Empirical validity: some support for the theory of psychological types
  • Heuristic value: continues to generate interest in a variety of professional disciplines
  • Applied value: has high applied value; used by investigators in many disciplines to understand the complex functioning of humans


References
Bernstein, D.A. & Nash, P.W. (2008). Essentials of psychology (4th ed.) Boston: Houghton Mifflin Company.
Feldman, R. (2013). Essentials of understanding psychology (11th ed.). New York, NY: McGraw-Hill.
Friedman, H.S. & Schustack, M.W. (2012), Personality: classic theories and modern research (5th ed). Boston: Pearson Allyn & Bacon.
Ryckman, R. M. (2013). Theories of personality (10th ed.). Mason, OH: Cengage Learning.

 

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